First Days of the 76th Regiment, New York Volunteers

By Richard F. Palmer

"The men of this regiment were proud of the suggestive numerals in their Regimental title, and by their gallantry and patriotism proved themselves worthy of the historic figures emblazoned on their colors."
--Regimental Losses in the American Civil War. By Lt. Col. William F. Fox (Albany, N.Y.) 1889 P. 209.


Cortland Prepares for War

Since South Carolina had led other Southern states in seceding from the Union in December, 1860, war clouds had been gathering on the horizon. At first it was a small cloud. But then it developed into a raging storm after Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, S.C. was fired upon. This was the symbolic beginning of the Civil War.

In a little more than a month, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebellion.

When the news of Fort Sumter reached Cortland, its loyal citizens were roused to action. The first war meeting was held in Cortland on April 20, 1861, a Saturday evening. It was held at the county courthouse, which stood on the present site of Cortland Free Library.

The courthouse was crowded to capacity and it is said hundreds more, unable to get in, stood outside. Cortland men were ready to respond to save the Union. At that mass meeting, resolutions stating the sentiments of the people were adopted. A paper was drawn up for the enrollment of volunteers. Cortland men were ready to respond and signed up. (1) (Note: Footnotes are at the end of this web page.)

At the second meeting on the following Monday at Squires Hall, many more men enlisted. Numerous meetings, which today would be considered rallies, were held until enough men were enrolled to form what was to become Co. H of the 23rd Volunteer Infantry. The company was commanded by 24-year-old Captain Martin C. Clark. With 80 men, this unit left for the embarkation point, Camp Elmira, on May 9, 1861.

Company H was not the first to leave, however. Capt. George Whitfield Stone, 21, led a company organized in Homer on April 23 that left there a short time later and arrived in Elmira on May 2. Captain Stone's men enlisted for three months and became Company D of the 12th Regiment of Infantry. It was nicknamed the "Onondaga Regiment," "Independence Guard, " and "The Dozen." (2) This state militia unit was composed of six companies from Syracuse and one each from Homer, Liverpool, Batavia, and Canastota. It was mustered in at Elmira on May 13, 1861 and left for Washington on May 12. Three months later the 12th was mustered into United States service, some companies for two years and others for three years. This was one of the units assigned to build the fortifications around Washington, D.C. (3)

Since this work deals the history of the 76th Regiment, the history of the other military units raised locally during the Civil War is not covered in detail here. It should be mentioned, however, that Cortland County furnished five companies for the 157th Infantry Regiment, as well as men for the 10th Cavalry. Cortland County men also served in numerous other volunteer regiments.

The Cortland community received most of its news through a few copies of the large daily newspapers that arrived by train; or by telegraph. Since there were not enough to circulate, the news was read aloud to groups who congregated at the local stores.

The Southern leaders and their ilk were quickly branded as traitors and rebels, and slavery was only one of the major issues that ultimately resulted in war. Even children talked about it.

A story is told of a Cortland man who was returned from Syracuse one day. As the train neared Preble, the conductor opened the coach door and called out "Preble." A little boy, seated with his mother, shouted, "Mama, what made that man open the door and holler 'rebel'?"

Everywhere patriotism ran high. Every day seemed to be the Fourth of July. Flags, many home made, were displayed in front of businesses and residences. Schoolgirls wore knots of red, white and blue ribbons. George W. Edgecomb of Cortland recalled:

"There was also music in the air, for all who could were singing the "Star Spangled Banner", "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean", "The Sword of Bunker Hill" and "Our Flag is There.""

With the exception of a few Southern sympathizers called "Copperheads," Cortland residents were loyal to the Union. All of Cortland's citizens, including the community leaders, were ready and willing to do anything to preserve the Union. The cause had the full support of such important Cortland citizens as Horatio Ballard, Thomas Keator, Henry Stephens, the Randalls, James S. Squires, Frederick Hyde, Hiram J. Messenger and Madison Woodruff. (4)

The disastrous Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) on July 21, 1861 shocked the North into the reality that that the Union army was not invincible. The North quickly recovered, however, and united in a common effort to put down this rebellion once and for all. But doubts were expressed that Cortland County could furnish another regiment without seriously draining it of all its young men. Nelson W. Green, a local attorney and businessman who settled in Cortland in 1859, was determined to raise more troops.

Green entered the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in September, 1839. His classmates included Ulysses S. Grant. He did very well and was within a few months of graduation when he was accidentally injured during an artillery drill. During subsequent years he was a newspaperman and wrote a book called "Fifteen Years Among the Mormons," an unflattering account of that sect. Before the idea of raising another regiment was seriously considered, Green formed classes for drill at the village hall. He always felt that troops should be properly drilled to develop their military skills before going off to war. (5)

Green did what almost everyone else thought impossible. His efforts resulted in the raising of a regiment that would eventually number more than 850 Cortland men. Men enlisted not only from Cortland, but from surrounding counties. The new unit was designated the 76th Regiment, New York Volunteers, by the New York State Adjutant General. This designation was embraced with patriotic enthusiasm. Recruiting continued in every school district and its ranks were largely filled by young men from surrounding farms. Green drew up a call for volunteers that was signed by 40 prominent citizens on Sept. 2, 1861.(6)

One of the first recruits was 24-year-old Freeman Schermerhorn of Truxton, who enlisted in Co. G. on Sept. 26, 1861. On that date he recorded his diary, "Went to Truxton to military meeting and I with other boys enlisted for the war."

The same day he and other recruits assembled at the fairgrounds between Cortland and Homer, which had been leased by the Cortland County Agricultural Society to the U.S. Army for $500. This rendezvous point was dubbed "Camp Campbell", in honor of Samuel Campbell of New York Mills. Campbell became interested in assisting the newly-formed 76th Regiment through his friend, Chaplain Hiram Stone Richardson, a Methodist minister then preaching in New York Mills. Having previously preached in Cortland, Richardson came back to help raise the regiment and to join up with his friends and former parishioners. (7)

Cortland Attorney Hiram Crandall , as a member of the Bounty Committee appointed by the Cortland County Board of Supervisors, played an important role in the fledgling days of the regiment. When minors enlisted, he appointed guardians where necessary, who gave their consent so the boys could be enlisted legally.

Companies A through G were primarily raised in Cortland, with recruits also from the nearby counties. Companies H, I, and K were raised in Cherry Valley, and joined the main body in Albany in December. Each company was required to have 100 men, although some fell short of that quota.(8)

On Oct. 1, Private Schermerhorn encamped at the fairgrounds, which he said was "the great event of my life." Although his diary entries are terse, he briefly mentions sleeping in the barracks, being on guard duty and attending meetings to raise troops in his hometown.

Mr. Campbell formally presented with a pair of Ebon Black Hawk Morgan horses, fully equipped, to the regiment on Oct. 21. One went to Green and the other to Chaplain Hiram Richardson. In his thank you letter to Richardson, published in the Syracuse Daily Journal on Oct. 22, Green also noted how cheerfully mothers, wives and sisters gave up their sons, husbands and brothers for the cause while trying to restrain the tears.

On Oct. 22, he and other soldiers received their military clothing, which consisted of a jacket, cap, cape and cover, overcoat, pair of shoes, pair of pants, two pair of socks, to pair of drawers, and two sheets. At least through October, the men were allowed to move about fairly freely, and allowed to go home during off-duty hours.

In the days that followed, Private Schermerhorn attended meetings to raise volunteers, who were assured that when eight companies of 32 men should be enrolled, that the point of rendezvous at Cortland village would be considered a branch of the Albany depot. They would be allowed 30 cents a day for subsistence.

A problem the 76th held in common with other military organizations was disease. Although considered fairly harmless today, measles was a major problem, along with bronchitis, pneumonia and scurvy. For the first time in their lives, farm boys were crowded together in not the best of quarters.

On Nov. 28, Schermerhorn noted in his diary "the measles raging in our camp, 60 boys sick." In those days, the only treatment for even childhood diseases was bed rest and plenty of liquids. It was common practice to hold fresh recruits back from active duty until they had been "put through the measles." This regiment's first true medical casualty was Freeman Schermerhorn's 18-year-old brother, Seymour, who died at the government hospital in Albany on Jan. 18, 1862. He was a private in Co. G. Before the unit was finally disbanded in 1864, another 156 men would die of disease. All told, the 76th during its existence suffered more than 650 casualties. There were 173 killed or mortally wounded; and 51 died in Rebel prison camps.(9)

By late September the nights were becoming much cooler and the recruits, unaccustomed to the rigors of camp life, began to keenly feel the need for fuel and heavier clothing. The women of the community freely contributed blankets, coverlets, towels and other necessities to make the men more comfortable. Besides suffering from measles, mumps and other physical discomforts, the young men soon became homesick and there were a few desertions. (10).

Desertion was another acute problem the 76th held with other regiments. A cursory review of the records show that at least 226 men, mostly from the ranks of the original 1,000 who enlisted, deserted at at one time or another - some even before they left Cortland or Cherry Valley. It finally came to the point of making an example out of one deserter by executing him before a firing squad. (see "the Execution of Winslow Allen")

The pressures of war, poor food, months without pay or fresh clothes and other hardships resulted in a high desertion rate. It is not known if the 76th offered amnesty to deserters if they returned, which was practiced in some units at the discretion of the commanders.

Note, however that in the Regimental History, in describing Allen's execution, A.P. Smith wrote about the treatment accorded deserters prior to Allen: "So many had been arrested and either returned to duty or punished by imprisonment and loss of pay, that he could not believe he would be sentenced to death. Others who had been sentenced to be shot had been pardoned, so that after the decision became known to him he still indulged in hope."

Within a short time the fairgrounds took on all the aspects of a regimental winter quarters. Drilling was carried on here by the officers, including Col. Green, and Captains Andrew J. Grover and J.C. Carmichael. Local halls were also used for drills during the evening.

The second night in camp, on Sept. 27, as the men had fallen asleep on their loose straw beds on the ground, there was a sudden crash during a rainstorm. The men awoke to find themselves in a drenching rain under a collapsed tent. The wind was blowing a gale. At 11 o'clock at night, with scarcely a dry thread upon them, the men fled to shelter in the makeshift barracks. (11)

On Friday, Oct. 11, 1861 Private Schermerhorn noted in his diary that a company of men arrived from Allegany County. These men, recruited in Belmont and the surrounding area, were commanded by Capt. Andrew J. McNett. William H. Bradford was first lieutenant and John J. Sherwood, second lieutenant. Abram P. Smith, unit historian, explained:

"Mr. Green, who had now become Colonel of the Regiment, had made an arrangement with Mr. Andrew J. McNett, of Allegany county, by which McNett, who had seventy men or thereabouts, was to recruit his company to the maximum strength and join the Seventy-sixth Regiment as Captain, and on the performance of certain conditions, McNett was to be made Major of the Regiment. Captain McNett joined the Regiment sometime in October with about seventy men. Colonel Green assisted in raising the number to upwards of ninety, by adding to the company certain men who had been brought by H.W. Pierce, of Dundee, Yates county. These men - about twenty-five in all, fifteen or twenty of whom were put into Captain McNett's company - were brought by Mr. Pierce, who was to be Captain; but failing to procure the required number, he was made Lieutenant in Captain Grover's company, and his men distributed between Captain Grover's and Captain McNett's companies." McNett's organization was originally designated as Co. E of the 76th Regiment.(12)

One historian wrote that the unit "received many tokens of kindness from the citizens of Cortlandville, and especially from the ladies, who kept the table continually supplied with delicacies that camp fare did not afford." (13)

The Green-McNett Shooting Affair

In the latter part of November, 1861, Captain McNett secured a leave of absence under the pretense he was going to go to Syracuse to purchase his uniform, and then to Allegany county to procure more men. On his return, Col. Green charged him with having used his leave of absence to go to Albany, where he preferred a series of charges against Green. According to A.P. Smith, the unit's historian, McNett stirred up strife because he expected to be the regiment's major, an appointment that went to Charles E. Livingston.

When McNett returned to Cortland , Col. Green charged him with violating the intent of the leave of absence and ordered him to give up the paper as fraudulently obtained. McNett refused to give up the paper and Green ordered Captain Grover to take it from him. McNett formally resisted, but unbuttoned his coat and Grover took the document from McNett's pocket.

Green then ordered McNett in close arrest in the officers' quarters, with orders he be permitted to communicate with no one, except by permission from the post commandant. A guard was placed over him. This created hard feelings within McNett's company, giving rise to much angry discussion in camp.

On Dec. 6, 1861, Col. Green had been to Captain McNett's company to settle some difficulty and on his return, while riding past the officers' quarters, saw McNett standing in the doorway.

Green ordered him back inside, but McNett refused to obey. According to Green, McNett was standing outside conversing and shaking hands with his men. McNett said he was actually just inside the door and had stepped near the entrance to get some fresh air. Exactly who was telling the truth is not known. One contemporary newspaper account states Green and McNett were personal friends - at least at one time. This seems logical since they both came from the same region of western New York. At the time, Green was 42 and McNett was 39.

The dialogue leading to the shooting went something like this:

Green. - "The prisoner should not leave his quarters. Retire to your quarters."

McNett. - "I shall not, sir."

Green - "Do you refuse to obey my orders, sir?"

McNett . - "I do, such orders."

Green. - (Dismounting and drawing a small Smith & Wesson pistol), "Will you retire to your quarters?"

McNett. - "I will not, sir!"

At this point, Col. Green fired a warning shot over McNett's head, the ball lodging in the roof of the quarters.

Green.- "Retire to your quarters, sir!"

McNett. - (Straightening up), "I will not sir! Shoot me if you dare!'

The colonel then lowered his pistol and fired, the ball striking McNett's chin and lodging in his neck. He immediately turned around and sat down in a chair. Dr. Judson C. Nelson, the surgeon, was called, the wound was dressed. McNett was then taken to the Eagle Tavern in Cortland to recover. (14)

"There is a good deal of excitement over this matter," reported the Syracuse Journal the following day, adding "the public feeling is so strong that nearly all business has been suspended since the unfortunate affair took place. The citizens mostly deprecate the Colonel's conduct, while the officers and men of the regiment unanimously uphold him. It was this morning reported at Cortland that Col. Green expected an attack from the incensed citizens, and had prepared himself therefore, having stationed two cannon so as to command the approaches to the camp, and defied the citizens to take him. This is doubtless an exaggeration, growing out of an application of the sheriff of the county, for the arrest of the Colonel. At noon today, although the public feeling at Cortland was exasperated, there was no fear of any serious disturbance."

The Cortland Gazette & Banner report of Dec. 12, 1861 noted:

"The affair has created a considerable excitement. There are various opinions in regard to the transaction. Some justify Col. Green, in the matter, and think he done right, while others condemn the course he took. Our own opinion is - and we think the right one - that inasmuch as the matter is to undergo a legal investigation, by the proper authorities, the community should wait for the decision of such tribunal. There the facts in the case will be brought under oath, and we have no doubt but that a fair and impartial decision will be rendered.

"If Col. Green has done right, the law will sustain him, and the community should acquiesce in such decision. If on the contrary, Col. Green has done wrong, and violated the laws of the land - either civil or military - the law will condemn him for it, and the people should in like manner acquiesce."

Still another newspaper editor noted "The general impression is in justification of the Colonel, viewing it as a military necessity."

Excitement continued to run high and the governor sent General James Wood, commander of the New York State Militia, to Cortland to ascertain the facts and, for the time being, take command of the regiment. At the time, the officers were quite unanimous in supporting Col. Green. On Dec. 9, General Wood met with the officers and the next day visited the camp to obtain the facts. On Dec. 13, he again met with the officers at the home of Col. Green in Cortland where the matter was fully discussed.

But apparently the evidence incriminated Green more than McNett as on the following day, Green was arrested by the sheriff on a criminal warrant for the shooting, and McNett was released. Green posted bail before the County Judge who put the case on the calendar for the Court of Oyer and Terminer, to be held the following January. He was indicted for assault with intent to kill on a civilian charge, and also faced a military court martial in Albany. For a time it appeared Green's military career would be cut short. The regiment was temporarily put under the command of Capt. J.C. Carmichael.

On Dec. 14th General Wood accompanied Green by train to Albany to confer with Governor Edwin D. Morgan on the matter. They returned to Cortland the following day.

There was no court martial held, and Green was ultimately restored as regimental commander. But the governor decided it was in the best interests of the regiment if Green and McNett were separated. So he transferred McNett and his company to the 93rd Regiment, New York Volunteers, then stationed at Albany, and restored Green as commander of the 76th. Meanwhile, the civilian court case against McNett was left pending until after the war and was not settled until 1866.

McNett went on to become a very distinguished officer, continuing his military career another five years after the Civil War. His highest field grade was brevet brigadier general of volunteers following the Battle of Atlanta. (14)

It was becoming close to the time when the 76th was to leave Cortland. The day before Green left for Albany, the 76th Regiment, under his command, consisting of more than 700 men, marched through the streets of Homer, which must have been an inspiring sight. An eyewitness account published in the Syracuse Journal on June 14, 1861 stated:

"For the first time since 1812 we have seen in our streets a regiment of soldiers, organized for actual service; and every man is ready and almost 'spoiling' for a chance to strike a decisive blow in favor of sustaining our glorious flag, and putting down the unholy rebellion. As the regiment was passing the Barber Block, the order was given to halt, and while directly under a large American flag, suspended from the store of George J.J. Barber, the boys gave three rousing cheers and a tiger for that emblem they are bound to protect. After marching through the main streets of the village, the regiment returned to Camp Campbell."

One of the last acts of kindness on the part the citizenry was a formal presentation of a sword to Captain William Lansing of Truxton, commander of Co. G, at Truxton Presbyterian Church on Dec. 14th. Co. G consisted of men mostly from that community. The sword was presented to Lansing by Stephen Patrick. Details of this event as well as the departure of the 76th on Dec. 18th were published in the Gazette & Banner the following day.

Originally the unit was to leave Cortland on Dec. 17, but these orders got countermanded for some unknown reason. Following the initial announcement, however, people from miles around came to see the men off. So as not to disappoint the assembled multitudes the regiment was formed and marched from Camp Campbell through the principal streets of Cortland where they cheered enthusiastically. Flags were displayed, the ladies waved their handkerchiefs and clapped their hands from the balconies and windows. Men heartily cheered them in the streets. A cannon salute was fired from Court House Hill.

On arriving at the center of Main Street the Regiment was invited into the garden and grounds of William R. Randall where a reception was held and patriotic speeches voiced. Chaplain Richardson sung the war song, "Take Your Gun and Go, John," and the Union version of "Dixie." The regiment then marched back to camp.

The following day the streets began to fill up early. At about 8 a.m. the troops reached the north end of Main Street, enroute to the Syracuse & Binghamton Railroad depot. Each soldier carried his blanket, some a satchel, containing such wearing apparel they were allowed, as well as little tokens of remembrance given to them by their loved ones.

The scene at the depot would not be soon forgotten. "The immense throng could be measured by acres, and numerated by thousands. The enthusiasm was unbounded,' wrote Gazette & Banner Editor Charles P. Cole. He continued:

"Yet grief was depicted upon the countenance of many - In the vast concourse of people, were many who were about to part - perhaps forever - with some one of their kindred." There were the usual tearful goodbyes, embraces and handshaking.

"Farewell soldiers of the Seventy-Sixth," Cole wrote. "Go, and bravely defend your country's flag. Go, with our blessing! and come not back, until you come to announce the rebellion crushed, and the traitors punished."

Internal Problems Continue

Months after the 76th had left Cortland, the regiment continued to experience internal problems, said to have been chiefly created by Col. Green. Apparently not the most affable person, Green had a way of irritating his fellow officers, as did Quartermaster A.P. Smith. These problems are only touched upon by Smith in his regimental history for obvious reasons. Eventually he and Green were dismissed from the service before the 76th saw any action. Some of the problems seem also to have been a carry over from the Green-McNett shooting affair that occurred at Camp Campbell.

The 76th was at Camp DeRussey when matters reached such a boiling point that 28 field, staff and line officers signed a petition asking Green to resign his command, which he refused to do.

They complained that Green was abusive, insolent and ungentlemanly, and frequently had unit officers arrested on trumped-up charges. At one point he had Captain Andrew J. Grover, commander of Company A, arrested and put in the guardhouse. The charges proved false and he was released. Often, Green's sanity was brought into question. He frequently referred to his superiors as "traitors, secessionists and damned fools."

It was also claimed he had made a secret arrangement with the sutler to split the profits of the sale of provisions to the troops. The officers complained:

"So peculiar and unusually often is his conduct and appearance, that after three months' acquaintance with him, we are thoroughly convinced of the unsoundness of his mind; so much so, we dare not trust ourselves under his command, believing that the result would be if called into action, disaster and defeat."

Green failed to command the respect of his men, who laughed at him, mimicked him in his manners, and gave him ludicrous titles. In short, he was an inept commander.

Eventually the case reached a military tribunal in the form of a court of inquiry. Green was not court-martialed, although the case was reviewed by the highest ranking officers in the Army of the Potomac, including General George McClellan. It then went to the Secretary of War. Eventually, the 42-year-old Green was discharged on June 3, 1862 and returned to Cortland, out of the service more than two and a half years short of his three-year enlistment.

Obviously, knowing that this was one of the major sore points of the unit's early history, Smith glossed it over by writing :

"A serious difficulty had arisen in the Regiment, and it was considered by the military authorities to be in an unfit condition to take the field. The officers, with very few exceptions, had preferred charges against Colonel Green, and those charges were being investigated by a military commission then convened in Washington. This placed Lieutenant-Colonel Shaul in command of the Regiment. After a somewhat protracted hearing, Colonel Green was ordered to Washington, and thence to his home in Cortland, N.Y. where he was afterwards, by order of the Secretary of War, dismissed from the service. The controversy growing out of the trial of Colonel Green for a time nearly paralyzed the Regiment, destroying its usefulness. Good men found themselves differing with equally good men, upon the merits and demerits of the prosecution, and skillful tacticians confessed that the only way to harmonize the feeling was a to bring the Regiment into action."

What Smith does not mention is that before the war, Green had been his law partner, and that he himself had left the unit as much under a cloud of controversy as his friend and commanding officer. Thus the history of the unit after his date of discharge on March 3, 1862 was not from first-hand knowledge but came from the lips of, or through correspondence with, other unit members.

Although Smith claimed he left the service because of "sickness in the family," evidence shows he found himself in an equally uncomfortable position as Green had. A war of words ensued between Smith and Grover, through the medium of the hometown newspapers - the Cortland Gazette & Banner and the Cortland Republican. This went on for several weeks in May, 1862. Smith implicated Grover in the shooting of McNett so he could be promoted to major.


Related Pages on this Website

Colonel Nelson Green's page

Major Grover's Letters - especially the letters about "Resignation of the Quartermaster" in the first file of letters, and "An Answer to Smith" in the second file.

"The Departure of the Regiment from Cortland" - article from the Gazette and Banner, reporting the departure of the 76th New York from Camp Campbell in Cortland.

A Report on the Charges against Colonel Green - a letter to the Gazette and Banner from a non-soldier "regimental correspondent" H.D.C., regarding the charges which resulted in the removal of the regiment's first Colonel in June 1862.


Footnotes

1. History of Cortland County, N.Y. by H.P. Smith (Syracuse, NY) 1885. P. 95; The First War Meeting in Cortland, April 20, 1861. Paper by George W. Edgecomb, Cortland County Historical Society files.

2. New York in The Rebellion by Frederick Phisterer (Albany, NY) 1912. Vol. III P. 1873.

3. Ibid.

4. Edgecomb, op. cit.

5. History of the Seventy-Sixth Regiment, New York Volunteers by A P. Smith (Cortland, NY) 1867. P. 346.

6. Smith, op. cit., PP 20-21

7. Camp Campbell, Paper by Helen C. Burlingame, April 23, 1932. Cortland County Historical Society files.

8. Notation in the Treasurer's Book of the Cortland County Agricultural Society, "Amount received from United States for rent of grounds for 76th Regiment $300." ;Phisterer, op. cit. Vol. III P. 434.

9. Fox, op. cit. P. 209; Phisterer, op. cit.

10. The first deserters were Pvts. William Adams, 34, Co. B, Dec. 12, 1861; John Darr, 18, Co. G., deserted in Syracuse Dec. 10, 1861, Charles S.H. Lang of Virgil, 21, Co. B., Nov. 17, 1861; William J. Lusk, 18, Co. E., Oct. 31, 1861; and Willard Norton, 22, Co. D., Dec. 15, 1861. Deserters at Cherry Valley were George F. Crouse. 26, and Joseph Decker, 18, both of Co. H. in Nov., 1861. From: Annual Report of the Adjutant-General, 1901; A.P.Smith, op. cit, P. 22; History of Allegany County, N.Y. F.W. Beers & Co., (NY), 1879 P. 102

11. Smith, op. cit. P. 23

12. Ibid.

13. History of Allegany County, op. cit. P. 102.

14. Smith, op. cit., pp. 23-26; Cortland Democrat, Sept. 18, 1925; Syracuse Daily Journal, Dec. 7, Dec. 12, 1861.


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